发布时间：2020-05-29 16:43:34 广东自考生网_www.gdzikao8.com
1. During the 1950s China exported agricultural products to the USSR and East European countries in return for manufactured goods and the capital equipment required for the country‘s industrialization programme which placed emphasis on the development of heavy industry.
2. The growth of foreign trade was distrupted again during the Cultural Revolution when agricultural and industrial production fell sharply and transportation constraints became more serious.
3. Exports grew much faster than imports during this period not only because of the strong emphasis placed on exporting by China‘s economic planners， but also because a number of industrial projects were postponed in 1979. Official recognition that foreign technology could play a major role in modernizing the Chinese economy has caused imports to rise by more than 50 per cent in 1978， placing undue strain on the national economy.
4. Chinese official stress the importance of introducing advanced technology to domestic industry， but the need is for technology of varying degrees of sophistication，not necessarily for advanced technology as that term is understood in the West.
5. There are no official statistics covering the invisible account of the balance of payments，but the size of the visible trade surplus during 1981-1983 and a pronounced increase in earnings from tourism suggest that the current account has been in surplus over the past few years.
6. Goods are produced according to a sample provided by the customer，while strong encouragement is given to compensation trade whereby a foreign seller supplies raw materials and equipment and receives manufactured goods， produced by the equipment provided，in return .Compensation trade differs from barter or counter-trade insofar as there is a direct link between the equipment supplied from abroad and the manufactured product. Assembly manufacturing began in 1978 and particular forms of foreign trade are eligible for exemption from customs duties and taxation.
7. The debt problems confronting a number of developing countries have reinforced China‘s determination to introduce foreign technology by means of direct investment and concessionary finance rather than by raising substantial sums of money on the international capital markets. The authorities do not consider it appropriate to incur large amounts of external debt until a number of practical bottlenecks in the economy， such as an inadequate transport network and energy constraints， have been tackled.