发布时间：2020-05-29 16:46:26 广东自考生网_www.gdzikao8.com
1.International conditions for growth in developing countries deteriorated in 1991. The Seven major industrial countries （the G-7） experienced a significant slowdown in GDP growth-from 2.8 percent in 1990 to 1.9 percent during 1991 as recession gripped Canada， the United Kingdom， and the United States and growth rates slowed in Continental Europe and Japan. In important respects. The slowdown was different from those that occurred during the 1970s and 1980s. Rather than reflecting the effect of disinflationary policies， weakness in demand was more closely related to the loss of momentum that had built up during the long period of expansion that began in 1983. In addition， a common factor underlying the slowdown in many industrial countries was the cyclical deceleration in investment spending.
2.Although the weakness in demand in the United States led to a sharp decline in short-term dollar interest rates—a positive development for many developing countries—it also contributed to a drop of over 6 percent in nominal commodity prices and to a slackening， to 3 percent， in the growth of world trade. These trends were compounded by worsening economic conditions in the soviet Union and its successor states， where a growing shortage of foreign exchange led to a compression of import from Eastern Europe and an acceleration of certain commodity exports to earn hard currencies.
3.Financial stress brought on by excessive debt in the household and corporate sectors was an example of another kind of structural problem， in particular for the economies of Japan and the United States. Financial institutions in these two countries adopted more conservative lending policies， curtailing financing of higher-risk projects such as commercial construction and highly leveraged corporate transaction. A number of weaker institutions were also consolicated through bankruptcy， merger and reorganization.
4.The major risk facing this highly trade-oriented region is the potential for sluggishness or disruption in world-trade flows. Economic weakness in some of the region's traditional export markets has underlined the importance of market diversification， including a further strengthening of ties within the region. Increasingly buoyant intraregional trade in East Asia may be viewed as evidence of an ongoing process of “market-oriented” regional integration， a development that could partially offset lackluster progress in the area of multilateral trade agreements.